Baia Mare

Baia Mare appeared on the map of urban settlements as a result of the exploitation activity of non-ferrous metals; the first reliable information on mining originate from the 14th century, although early medieval activities like this are much earlier, at least from the second half of the thirteenth century.

The community memory records as the first town’s identity card the document from May 29, 1329, through which King Carol Robert (1301-1342) was offering to the Corrardus governor, judge of Baia Mare and Baia Sprie, the forest located between the two settlements for this territory to be populated. Baia Mare appears here as civitas Rivuli Dominarum, the Corrardus judge being the same for Mons Medius (Baia Sprie), too. The document from 1329 was not kept, its content being summarized in a document from 1479.

The first town’s privileged diploma , that we can study today, dates from September 20, 1347 and it was granted by Ludovic I (1314-1382), at the request of judge Martin, provost Ioan, magister Petru and notary Ulrich, judges from Baia Mare and Săsar (Rivulo Dominarum et Zazar Bánya), considering the fact that the prior privilege of the town burned in a fire.

By this new privilege, the borders of the town are established and different rights are given to the citizens: the right to choose their judge, jury and pastor, the right to judge within the town “all of the causes that arise between them, regardless if they are bigger or smaller”, freedom of individuals, free customs, the right to have a fair per year, for fifteen days “uninterruptedly”, free wine sales, the right to fortify the walls “against the enemies”. A distinct category of provisions concerns the organisation of mining, specifying that, annually, they would need to choose a judge of the miners who should supervise, together with the judge of the town and the jury, the activity taking place in the mines and to exercise their judgment in matters related to mining. Also, the judge and the jury were choosing the mines supervisors, who had to “research every cave and mine work and to take care of the town’s revenue” entitled to the king.


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